The camera is the image-forming device, and the photographic film is the recording medium. A camera works somewhat like the human eye, capturing reflected light from objects and through a camera lens and focusing those light rays into an image. Traditionally cameras recorded the image onto film. More recently through the development of computer chips, many cameras capture their images on a computer chip. The computer chip then allows the conversion of the image to digital data. Regardless of whether the photography is film or digital-based, the images can be made permanent and seen by an unlimited number of people.
Photographers control the camera and lens to “expose” the light recording material usually film or a charge-coupled device; a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor may also be used to the required amount of light. After processing, this produces an image.
Types of Camera
- SLR Single Lens Reflex: The viewfinder sees the same image as the main lens, i.e. what you see is what you get. SLRs also allow you to change lenses for different purposes. This is a hugely popular type of camera, pretty much the standard for enthusiasts and professionals.
- Viewfinder or range finder: In this type of camera, the viewfinder is separate from the lens. This is common in cheap cameras, although some professional cameras also use this configuration. The main problem with a separate viewfinder is that the image you see may not be quite the same as the image that gets recorded. This limitation is overcome in professional cameras by using viewfinders that compensate for the different positions. Viewfinder cameras do have some advantages; for example, lower noise and higher light levels to the viewfinder
- Twin reflex: The camera has two lenses — one for the photograph and one for the viewfinder. This type of camera has certain advantages in some professional situations.
- View: A flexible bellow joins two standards — one with the lens and the other with the viewfinder or film. This allows for unusual types of composition; for example, distorting the shape of the image by skewing the film plane.
- Pinhole: A very simple camera without a lens.
- Mirrorless Cameras
- Action Cameras
- 360 Cameras
- Medium Format Cameras
- Film Cameras
- Large Format Cameras